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61. Power vs Force: The Hidden Determinants
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63. Cognitive Psychology
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61. Power vs Force: The Hidden Determinants of Human Behavior
by David R. Hawkins, Veritas Pub
list price: $24.95
our price: $24.95
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0964326108
Catlog: Book (1995-06-01)
Publisher: Veritas Books (CN)
Sales Rank: 29578
Average Customer Review: 4.22 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

In this groundbreaking book you will learn how to get demonstrably true answers to your questions, and know what true success is and how to create it. ... Read more

Reviews (88)

5-0 out of 5 stars One of the most important books.
Reviewer Ruth Lyon was very skeptical of muscle testing, yet I have experienced its validity in many ways for over 25 years through its application by trained, qualified professionals who understand its correct use - mostly chiropractors. Her own skepticism makes her a poor judge of this method and therefore of Power Vs. Force.

This book is one of the most important I have ever read, illuminating the effect of all things on human behavior. Music, color, environment, enterainment, literature and more all have an influence on the people who experience them. Hawkins has done us a great service in this work, and we would do well to listen to him. He points out that even excellence in some area of life doesn't mean it is of a beneficial effect, such as a skilled musican playing what some call "death rock" music. The effect is what matters. Of particular value is his clarification of the relative calibrations of emotions and attitudes of consciousness, much of which is little understood by most. With this map we can make choices and progress in our lives. It is a map to sanity and value that is much needed in this world.

I know a someone who is well aquainted with the author, and he says he is indeed a brilliant man. Those who would be critical of him should look at their own qualifications to judge him or his methods. Power Vs. Force is a book not to be passed up.

By the way, the first three chapters are extreemely dry clinical material and are hard for most to read with interest. Skim them if you need to, and get into the meat in chapter 4.

3-0 out of 5 stars Could've been great!
This book COULD have been great. For a moment at least, let's take the major premise of kinesiology testing at the author's word. If true, this would be a MAJOR breakthrough in man's ability to discern truth from fiction in the world. The author himself mentioned that he's undertaken millions of kinesiological tests over the past number of years. So, you would expect to find out all kinds of interesting "eye-opening" facts in the book, wouldn't you? Don't hold your breath. The author divulges a sum total of 30-40 test results throughout the entire book (mostly how historical persons such as Jesus and Hitler calibrated). If he's so confident in his system, why not publish a book of the 1000's of interesting facts that could be ascertained using this method (e.g. "Did O.J. do it?"). It would be the most interesting book ever written (again assuming the testing system is what the author claims it is). Instead, the author goes through chapter after chapter of telling you how the method COULD be used by the reader (e.g. to choose politicians, make company decisions, etc.).

One other MAJOR note...the mathematical assumptions in this book are absolutely atrocious, and frankly embarrassing for someone of Dr. Hawkins' reported credentials! For instance, the author claims that simply by reading this book, the average reader increased their calibration by 35 points. If you know the math behind the logarithmic scale the author uses, this means that the average reader increased his consciousness calibration by 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 times!!! You mean to tell me that by reading one 300-page book, I've increased my consciousness trillions and trillions of times over? C'mon Dr. Hawkins! Another example is how Dr. Hawkins laments how the average human "only" gains 5 calibration points over a lifetime. Only? 5 points is 10 to the 5th power, or 100,000. Wow I only wish I could increase my consciousness by a magnitude of 100,000X in my lifetime! A mere surface review of the book from a mathematical angle shows these HUGE flaws in the "scale"...which makes me highly skeptical of how accurate the author's entire methodology is!

With that said, I have conducted some very preliminary tests of the kinesiology method, with a good deal of success (O.J. did do it by the way, according to my testing, and Bach tested positive versus a negative for Slayer). I'll also give the author commendation on his general writings about what it takes for us all to improve ourselves. But I remain HIGHLY skeptical about the entire premise of the author's mathematics and the "scale" derived from that faulty math, and therefore give the book 3 stars out of 5.

5-0 out of 5 stars Highly Recommended
Dr. Hawkins has presented the ultimate rendition of spiritual truth in this book. And it's no wonder we've never seen the truth presented in such clear language - our intellects are not geared toward understanding such things due to our social conditioning and the inherent fallibility of our power of perception. But don't fear, quiet reflection on the ideas presented in the book will open new windows of understanding to the reader.
This new understanding has had a powerful effect on my own life in the past 3 months. I now know that all is indeed well, and has always been so. Dr. Hawkins has opened the door for me, and I'm on my way to a new life. I highly recommend this book.

1-0 out of 5 stars The mathematics in this book is a joke
If a doctor were to tell you that your backache was caused by "halitosis of the femural artery located in the sternum", you would know that he doesn't know what he is talking about. This is exactly what Dr. Hawkins does with mathematical terms.

Dr. Hawkins rates everything in the universe on a scale of 1 to 1000 based on how good or bad it is. To explain this scale he uses a lot of technical-sounding mathematical terms, but he uses those terms incorrectly- to the point of being gibberish. Since he knows his discussion would be above most readers' heads Dr. Hawkins can get awy with it.

He claims that the scale is "logarithmic" and base 10, but in his explanation of what a logarithm is, he confuses logarithmic functions with exponential functions and repeats this mistake throughout the book. Essentially,someone at level 201 has ten times the power of someone at 200, someone at 202 has 10 times the power of someone at 201 and so on.

This "logarithmic progression" is then completely contradicted by his chart which states how many people at one level counterbalance someone at another level. One of the statements on this chart is that "12 people at level 700 equals one avatar at 1000". On his "logarithmic"(actually exponential) scale it would take 10^300 people at level 700(that's a one with 300 zeros in front of it) to equal the power of one person at level 1000. Since when does 12= 10^300?

He uses the calculus term "critical point" and claims that his scale has a critical point at 200. In mathematics a critical point is the point where the derivative of a function equals zero. On a graph, it is the point where the tangent line is flat-the point where you are neither rising nor falling. What Dr. Hawkins didn't realize was that neither logarithmic functions nor exponential functions have critical points. Their derivatives are always positive. In this case, he just threw in a mathematical term without bothering to find out what it means.

He discusses chaos theory, because it is new and trendy, but he misses the point entirely. He seems to think that chaos theory implies that the world is more orderly and easily explained than previously thought, when in fact chaos theory implies just the opposite.He does this because he likes the word "attractor" which he overuses throughout the rest of the book

In other cases, bad math like this could be overlooked. He is after all a psychiatrist, not a mathematician. In this book, however, the technical terms are used to impress the readers with how scientific the system is, and the claim is that it is based on research. If you can understand what these mathematical terms actually mean, it becomes clear by the gibberish that he is just making this stuff up. If his "mathematical" system was revealed to him through muscle-testing (as opposed to outright fiction), then it shows just how unreliable this system is.

Perhaps the most blatently incompetent statement he makes is that a loving thought has the energy of " 10^-35 million megawatts"(I'm using the symbol ^ because this this font won't allow superscripts) and claims that the quantity is "so enormous as to be beyond the capacity of the human imagination to comprehend" The truth is that this quantity is so miniscule as to be beyond our capacity to comprehend. 10^35 million is a one with 35 million zeros in front of it- a huge number indeed, but 10^-35 million is 1/10^35 million -- a mind-bogglingly tiny fraction. If you were to multiply the mass of the entire galaxy by a fraction that tiny, you wouldn't even have enough mass for a single electron. If the minus sign was a typo, without it the energy level described would be great indeed -probably be along the order of the big bang and our heads would have exploded (and caused a supernova) a long time ago. In this case, he just threw together the most confusing notation he could think of, without a clue as to what it meant. He did this to make it appear scientific. He figured that his readers would be too dumb to know the difference. I don't think this can be written off as a mere honest mistake

Other laughable statements are that organically grown tobacco is actually healthy, and that taking one gram of vitamin C per day will counter all of the harmful effects of smoking.

He also states that adrenaline causes the muscles to go weak. Adrenaline is the stimulant hormone associated with the fight/flight response and its entire purpose is to give you EXTRA strength and energy in an emergency. As a doctor, he should know this

This book would be funny if it wasn't so scary.This man claims to be an MD and as far as I know still has a license.

If you have a degree in math, physics, engineering or something similar, this book can pretty entertaining. It is fun to pick apart,but as a source of truth it is worthless.

5-0 out of 5 stars For me, a life-changer!
I rarely post reviews, but in this case I'm adding my voice to the mix because I value this book (and the other two in this trilogy) so highly. You'll note WIDELY disparate takes on the content and quality of this book, so the discerning shopper is aware that Dr. Hawkins' take on things is a tad controversial. If you're wondering whether to buy it, here are a few things to keep in mind: 1) if you're looking for a study and/or how-to on kinesiology exclusively from the scientific (or even humanist) point of view, this isn't the right book. The main thrust of this book is spiritual growth, and kinesiology is one tool Hawkins puts forth; 2) if you ARE a spiritual seeker, you already know that not every path is for everyone. This particular path is the only one in a lifetime of seeking that has resonated 100% for me. I feel I've found my teacher at last!! The reviewers here who regard this book as superficial or as a rehash of the same old stuff we've all heard a million times do not--forgive me--get it. I do NOT mean they are stupid or foolish. I mean that because it's not the right thing for them, they can't hear all the levels. If it's right for you, even in part, trust me--you won't find it superficial or redundant. ... Read more

by Scott Wetzler
list price: $12.00
our price: $9.00
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0671870742
Catlog: Book (1993-10-01)
Publisher: Fireside
Sales Rank: 6885
Average Customer Review: 4.03 out of 5 stars
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Book Description


The catch-me-if-you-can lover...
Phil's romantic and passionate one minute, distant and cold the next.

The deviously manipulative coworker or boss...
Jack denies resenting Nora's rapid rise in the company, but when they're assigned to work together on a project, he undermines her.

The obstructionist, procrastinating husband...
Bob keeps telling his wife he'll finish the painting job he began years ago, but he never seems to get around to it.

These are all classic examples of the passive-aggressive man. This personality syndrome -- in which hostility wears a mask of passivity -- is currently the number one source of men's problems in relationships and on the job. In Living with the Passive-Aggressive Man, Scott Wetzler draws upon numerous case histories from his own practice to explain how and why the passive-aggressive man thinks, feels, and acts the way he does. Dr. Wetzler also offers advice on:

• How to avoid playing victim, manager, or rescuer to the "P-A"
• How to get his anger and fear into the open
• How to help the "P-A" become a better lover, husband, and father
• How to survive passive-aggressive game playing on the job

Living with a man's passive aggression can be an emotional seesaw ride. But armed with this book, you can avoid the bumpy landings. ... Read more

Reviews (35)

5-0 out of 5 stars Should be required reading for every woman in America!
If you're on the dating scene and you've thought you were making progress with a relationship--only to have the guy start getting cold feet, or your formerly passionate husband has become incommunicative and disinterested, then you need to read Living with the Passive-Aggressive Man. All will become clear within 200 pages.

The passive-aggesive personality disorder in men is reaching epidemic proportions in this country, due to the fact that most American men over 30 were raised with one set of values (women should be submissive and stay at home) and are today supposed to live with another set of values (women are men's equal and should follow their own ideas). And then there are all the p/a's who inherited their problems from upbringing by troubled parents.

All I know is that every single one of my female friends has pondered "how can you possibly understand men?" Well, Scott Wetzler does, and explains their inexplicable p/a behavior. I thought it was interesting that the negative reviews of this book were all by men--no doubt guys who had had the book given to them because they had a problem, and as the book says, are incapable of taking responsibility for their actions!

I found it chilling that Dr. Wetzler described my husband as if he knew him personally. The problems that I had blamed myself for were all there: the abstinence, the emotional withdrawal, the subtle criticisms, the narcissim. What a huge relief to know that all this was not my fault!

5-0 out of 5 stars Comprehensive and useful information. Could not put it down.
I am married to and have two children with a passive aggressive man. I have searched local bookstores for a book on the topic for 2 years. One night, in desperation, I searched Amazon for a book on the subject and thankfully, I found this book by Scott Wetzeler.

Scott Wetzler clearly outlines the personality of a passive aggressive and concise terms and offers comprehensive solutions in how to deal with this personality.

What I loved most about the book were the validating stories told by other women that have experienced the, frustration, humiliation and emotional abuse, while involved with a "PA". I read their words over and over again in partial disbeleif, that my exact feelings and discription of the behavior, were staring back at me in black and white.

I urge anyone (male or female) who is in a relationship with someone who sulks, does not respond to a direct question or insists they are not angry even though their actions tell you otherwise, to read this book. It will save your life, as it has mine.

5-0 out of 5 stars THANK GOD... IT FINALLY MAKES SENSE
This is a must read for every woman. If I had read this book 5 years ago it's possible I could have avoided a very damaging on again, off again relationship with a PA man. Many of the scenarios and behaviors outlined in the book were exactly what I have allowed myself to live with for far too long. The author gives many suggestions on how to live with and adapt to the PA behavior. He also points out that there may come a time when you have no choice but to get out of the relationship in order to save yourself. In my experience with the PA man he is very immature, does not fight fair, does not know the meaning of unconditional love and is unwilling to change any aspect of himself. I had bought into the PA behavior completely. I found it very reassuring to read the words "it's not your fault". It is sad how much of ourselves we (the women who love the PA man) are expected to give up in order to try and make these relationships work. Truly successful relationships are made up of give and take, working through issues together, accepting the good times with the bad, communication and compromise. Life is too short to be spent with a man who takes more than he gives and leaves you feeling anything less than secure about your role in his life. I am very grateful to Scott Wetlzer for bringing the PA behavior to light in such an easy to read (and read again) book. His outline of the PA behavior helped me to accept that I have done all I can do and for me the only option left was to move on.

I strongly recommend this book for anyone seeking to find help for their therapy resistant partner who has mood disorders, any type of addiction, identity issues, self-esteem issues, reoccurring unresolved anger, troubling relationship, boundry and trust issues.

Excellent compliments to this book are: The Angry Heart: Overcoming Borderline and Addictive Disorders by Joseph Santoro and Ronald Cohen; The Narcissistic Family: Diagnosis and Treatment by Stephanie Donaldson-Pressman and Robert Pressman; Why Is It Always About You?: The Seven Deadly Sins of Narcissism by Sandy Hotchkiss and James Masterson; Emotional Blackmail: When People in Your Life Use Fear, Obligation and Guilt to Manipulate You by Susan Forward and Donna Frazier; Understanding the Borderline Mother: Helping Her Children Transcend the Intense, Unpredictable and Volatile Relationship by Christine Ann Lawson; Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited by Sam Vaknin and Lidija Rangelovska (Editor); Children of the Self-Absorbed: A Grown-Up's Guide to Getting Over Narcissistic Parents by Nina Brown; Treating Attachment Disorders: From Theory to Therapy by Karl Heinz Brisch and Kenneth Kronenberg; Toxic Coworkers: How to Deal with Dysfunctional People on the Job by Alan Cavaiola and Neil Lavender; Bully in Sight: How to Predict, Resist, Challenge and Combat Workplace Bullies by Tim Field.

And if you want to pursue the subject even further, you may be interested in reading The Narcissistic / Borderline Couple: A Psychoanalytic Perspective On Marital Treatment; Addicted to Unhappiness: Free yourself from the moods and behaviors that undermine relationships, work and the life you want by Martha Heineman Pieper and William Pieper; Parenting with Love and Logic: Teaching Children Responsibility by Jim Fay and Foster Cline.

1-0 out of 5 stars Schlock!
From the reviews, many have given this book high marks because the anedotal evidence confirms their own experiences. This is undoubtedly true. Everyone can relate to some story in the book to a person they knew and say to themselves: "That person was passive-aggressive." The main criticism people seem to have is that the author singles out men when clearly women are capable of the same behavior. I can't argue with that. I think the omission of women provides some insight into the author and the political agenda he's trying to advance. This whole book might be an exercise into the author's own passive-aggressiveness against men. If you disagree, re-read the introduction. The author states that Men have failed (or refused?) to become a NEW MAN that feminism's rise has allowed the opportunity to emerge. Not only is this just pretentious and plays on people's stereotypes about men, but the author seems to be pandering to his audience. Moreover, the omission of women is essential to the political agenda the author is advancing: that an epidemic of passive-aggressiveness is in response to feminism. Any acknowledgment that women could be passive-aggressive would undermine this agenda.
But my fundamental criticism of this book is that it's worthless beyond the confirmation or comfort it brings to certain readers. Even this confirmation is fundamentally flawed. The book is entirely based on labeling the person as "passive-aggressive". Labeling is a classic cognitive distortion. It leaves out the fact that almost everyone has some passive-aggressive moments and other moments when they can be open and caring. [I think if you're honest with yourself you'll find out this applies to you too. Though admittedly, some people act more passive-aggressive than others.] Just labeling someone passive-aggressive is not only inaccurate but it's counter-productive. It will just elicit a negative response in the other person. It will turn them off. This may give the finger-pointer a false sense of superiority but does nothing to solve the behavior. And solving the behavior should be the whole point! The book is not based on any solid research, only the author's own observations. What evidence, besides the author's assertion, that there is an epidemic of male passive-aggressiveness? (This absence of evidence points to a basic problem in identifying "personality disorders" in psychotherapy. Are there double-blind studies that have determined whether the "passive-aggressive personality disorder" even exists? Sure passive-aggressive behavior exists but does it rise to the level of a personality disorder? I'm very skeptical) More importantly, the book offers no solutions beyond bringing the poor guy into therapy. You are better off buying one of the good cognitive-behavioral books available. Changing oneself or getting another person to change is hard work. You don't need to make it harder by name-calling and then not providing any solutions. ... Read more

63. Cognitive Psychology
by Robert J. Sternberg
list price: $95.95
our price: $91.95
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0155085352
Catlog: Book (2002-08-02)
Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
Sales Rank: 212628
Average Customer Review: 5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

Sternberg's text balances accessible writing, practical applications and research scholarship, including biologically oriented information. It explores the basics of cognitive psychology through its coverage of cognitive neuroscience, attention and consciousness, perception, memory, knowledge representation, language, problem solving and creativity, decision making and reasoning, cognitive development, and intelligence. ... Read more

Reviews (1)

5-0 out of 5 stars Excellent, Comprehensive Introduction
Covers all the main areas of Cognitive Psychology extremely well. It is very easy to read, despite being written in a scientific style. Highly recommended. ... Read more

64. The Third Chimpanzee : The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal
by Jared M. Diamond
list price: $15.00
our price: $10.20
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Asin: 0060984031
Catlog: Book (1992-12-02)
Publisher: Perennial
Sales Rank: 2950
Average Customer Review: 4.47 out of 5 stars
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Jared Diamond states the theme of his book up-front: "How the human species changed, within a short time, from just another species of big mammal to a world conqueror; and how we acquired the capacity to reverse all that progress overnight." The Third Chimpanzee is, in many ways, a prequel to Diamond's prize-winning Guns, Germs, and Steel. While Guns examines "the fates of human societies," this work surveys the longer sweep of human evolution, from our origin as just another chimpanzee a few million years ago. Diamond writes:

It's obvious that humans are unlike all animals. It's also obvious that we're a species of big mammal down to the minutest details of our anatomy and our molecules. That contradiction is the most fascinating feature of the human species.

The chapters in The Third Chimpanzee on the oddities of human reproductive biology were later expanded in Why Is Sex Fun? Here, they're linked to Diamond's views of human psychology and history.

Diamond is officially a physiologist at UCLA medical school, but he's also one of the best birdwatchers in the world. The current scientific consensus that "primitive" humans created ecological catastrophes in the Pacific islands, Australia, and the New World owes a great deal to his fieldwork and insight. In Diamond's view, the current global ecological crisis isn't due to modern technology per se, but to basic weaknesses in human nature. But, he says, "I'm cautiously optimistic. If we will learn from our past that I have traced, our own future may yet prove brighter than that of the other two chimpanzees."--Mary Ellen Curtin ... Read more

Reviews (57)

5-0 out of 5 stars A fascinating and important book...
After trying to read _Guns, Germs, and Steel_, I found this book, surprisingly, easier to get interested in and understand. Not that it's simpler or dumbed-down!

The book tries to answer the questions of what it means to be human, and how we are different from other life forms. This might sound like a cliché, but as Diamond delves into ethics, sex, history, evolution, and drug abuse, and comes out with his grim but guardedly optimistic conclusions, it seems apparent to me, at least, that what he is saying is of utmost importance to everyone in the world.

Having read the book _Ishmael_, by Daniel Quinn, a few years ago, I wonder if Diamond's thinking could actually be improved by being combined with Quinn's. Diamond suggests that, when prehistoric societies drove certain animals to extinction, they were acting out a human tendency to be destructive to our local environments that is simply horribly intensified today. Quinn suggests that some of those prehistoric societies were not particularly more destructive than other animals, and for the same reasons; while other, more civilized societies had the tendency to be destructive because of their cultures' inclinations, and passed this tendency on to us, their cultural descendants.

Of course, if Quinn is correct, our culture must be changed, a daunting task; while if Diamond is correct, the solution is unclear. He suggests that we may in fact be learning to change our behavior, in our own self-interest. I don't see much evidence of this offhand. (Although recent books by Paul Hawken and Ray C. Anderson suggest that business can be reformed in a way that's good both economically and ecologically; they're next on my reading list!) Quinn and Diamond alike offer a very cautious hope for our ecological future: that we may learn from the errors of the past and change our behavior accordingly.

But how easy it is to sit and type platitudes about the fate of all human life! Read the book; I'm going to reread it myself, in order to thoroughly take in its meaning. If anyone is interested in discussing these topics, please email me.

5-0 out of 5 stars A Captivating Work
I read this book just after I finished GGS and at some aspects, I liked it even more than the much celebrated GGS.

At each chapter of the Third Chimpanzee we learn a totally new subject in the Jared Diamond style: a well-thought synthesis, a simple and organized presentation. Every other twenty pages was a new adventure for me.

Obviously, this might not be the case for other readers that are more acquainted with evolution readings, and obviously I need a lot to learn before I can decide their authenticity but I found his ideas on subjects like extraterrestrial life and evolution of drug abuse very original and provoking. I also found his narration of the issues of Indo-European Languages spreading, mate selection, animal art and genocide very moving and comprehensive.

A surprise for me was that this book tells the main concept of GGS thoroughly in just two chapters. Given the occasionally criticized redundancy and large volume of GGS, I might humbly suggest a prospective reader of Diamond who has limited time to read this book instead of GGS. For sure, GGS gives a much better and extensive treatise of the concept and it is also a must read book for anybody who wants to put a perspective to human history. Third Chimpanzee also gives a perspective to human psychology and I sincerely recommend it to anybody interested in these two subjects.

4-0 out of 5 stars Thought-provoking
This is a very worthwhile read for anyone interested in how man differs and does not differ from the rest of the animal kingdom (particularly the great apes). Since the book is already over ten years old, it is a bit weak on new advances in genetics and does not seem to be up-to-date on the Clovis debate about the peopling of the Americas (new genetic data showing that the entrance was probably earlier than the assumed 12,000 years ago). However, the bulk of the book is a very mind-broadening, timeless view of homo sapiens and this species conquest of the entire planet. The history that Diamond portrays does not augur well for mankind: habitual destruction of the environment; mass extinctions of other species; increasingly limited genetic diversity in the human species; the propensity for genocide. In short, Diamond shows that man has a history of selfishly expanding its population to the detriment of the very environment upon which he depends and that this proclivity could someday spell the end of the species as our numbers continue to rise. Some sobering facts are offered here; and open minds should recognize them and heed them.

I only give the book four stars for two reasons:
1) As mentioned, the part on genetics is partially out of date and should be made current in a further edition.
2) Diamond has a number of annoying tendencies that are sometimes frustrating: I grew weary of his "Outer Space" perspectives (i.e., the paleontologist from Outer Space, the archaeologist from Outer Space, the biologist from Outer Space), as if the reader were incapable of standing back and gaining perspective on his own species without this trick. Also, he piqued my curiosity on a number of subjects that he promised to cover in detail later. When thse subjects finally came, there were often more questions than answers.

5-0 out of 5 stars Absolutely FASCINATING!!!
Jared Diamond has to be one of my favorite authors. I could hardly put this book down! After reading "Guns, Germs and Steel," and "Why is Sex Fun?", "The Third Chimpanzee" has also proven to be yet another brilliant work by the author. He asks questions and looks at angles that are fascinating and provide almost endless food-for-thought. He approaches his subjects with open-mindedness and a true desire to uncover the truth.
Human evolution and early human history is a mysterious subject with much of the pieces missing, simply because of how long ago it happened and the lifestyle of those early humans. Yet it is such an important subject-- to understand WHAT homo sapiens really are, how we fit in with the other members of our family tree, how we got to be the way we are. Mr. Diamond applies his experience with hunter-gatherer New Guinian peoples to try to fill in these gaping holes. For thousands of years, all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, yet today it is a lifestyle that is becoming increasingly rare. He also provides insight into our physical evolution, sexual and reproductive evolution, the evolution of language and communication, and how our closest current relatives --the chimps and gorillas-- differ from and are similar to us. He also discusses what he terms "our Great Leap Forward"-- the point were we stopped being pre-human and started being (mentally and behaviorly) modern.
If you are at all interested in early human history and the "whys" and "hows" of many of our "human" characteristics, then this book is for you. You'll find Mr. Diamond's open, honest approach refreshing and easy to follow. Excellent book on understanding what it means to be human, and how we got that way.

5-0 out of 5 stars An amazing puzzle of a book
Challenges the intellect and provokes deep thought. ... Read more

65. 302 Advanced Techniques for Driving a Man Wild in Bed : The New Book by the Bestselling Author of 203 Ways to Drive a Man Wild in Bed
list price: $18.00
our price: $12.24
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0609610562
Catlog: Book (2002-01-15)
Publisher: Harmony
Sales Rank: 6803
Average Customer Review: 4.33 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

The author of the hugely successful and perennially popular 203 Ways to Drive a Man Wild in Bed is back with an all-new, easy-to-use guide that elevates sexual proficiency and erotic ecstasy to an entirely new level.

“The secret lies not in comeliness or technique but in the fearlessness to reveal your truest female self,” writes Olivia St. Claire as she refines the art of driving him wild—this time focusing on advanced lovemaking techniques with the hottest tips ever. Olivia helps you identify your passion triggers, safely guides you to the edge of your sexual boundaries, and lets you in on everything you ever wanted to know about truly passionate lovemaking.

Frankly erotic, playfully sexy, and intelligently written, 302 Advanced Techniques for Driving a Man Wild in Bed is simple enough to consult at a moment’s notice, but sophisticated enough to leave him breathless at your newfound prowess.The inviting layout, the numbered tips, and the guidelines for the most erotic sex possible make it easy and fun for a willing couple to embark upon an amorous adventure—whenever and wherever the spirit moves them.

Users of this dazzling selection of sexual techniques will bring any man to his knees.
... Read more

Reviews (3)

5-0 out of 5 stars Groundbreaking yet easy
I loved Olivia's first two books because they're fun, sexy, and so easy to dip into when you need a quick tip or some inspiration. This new book is packed with completely new and wild suggestions for a sexy, romantic, or daring erotic encounter. And I really liked all the boxes with extra tips and hints, like The Art of the Quickie (which shows you how to make it hot and enjoyable for BOTH of you). It has lots more variety, novelty, and pure eroticism than most other sex books I've seen. Just reading it make me tingle!

5-0 out of 5 stars Funny and Informative
"302 Ways, Advanced techniques..." is a thoroughly informative and humorous book. It has helped spice up my husband's and my sex life with practical tips and techniques. Reading it together has been a loads of fun. Thank you again Olivia St. Claire!

3-0 out of 5 stars disappointing
I loved Olivia St. Claire's first two books. "203 ways to drive a man wild in bed", and its successor, "Unleashing the sex goddess within", were both groundbreaking. "203" taught women that sexy is in the mind, and "sex goddess" connected them to the eternal feminine mystery of women's sexuality. This new book, however, hasn't much that's novel to say. The philosophy is the same, and I've seen most of the tips she gives in this one in her other books or other people's books. However, it is very erotically written and if you haven't read her first two books, you might enjoy it greatly. Fans of her previous work (like me) will probably be disappointed. ... Read more

66. Cognitive Psychology (7th Edition)
by Robert L. Solso, M. Kimberly MacLin, Otto H. MacLin
list price: $103.00
our price: $103.00
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0205410308
Catlog: Book (2004-07-27)
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
Sales Rank: 170080
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67. Behavior Principles in Everyday Life (4th Edition)
by John D. Baldwin, Janice I. Baldwin
list price: $88.20
our price: $88.20
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Asin: 0130873764
Catlog: Book (2000-09-07)
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Sales Rank: 138847
Average Customer Review: 5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

This book comprehensively introduces the major psychological principles of behavior: operant conditioning, Pavlovian conditioning, social learning theory, and cognitive behaviorism. It closely links these basic abstract principles to relevant, concrete examples from everyday life—showing readers how each behavior principle operates in easily understood settings, and how to apply them in complex natural situations.Chapter topics cover behavior modification; primary and secondary reinforcers and punishers; differential reinforcement and shaping; modeling and observational learning; prompts and fading; rules; schedules; positive and negative control; and thinking, the self, and self-control. For individuals making the transition from adolescence into the various phases of adulthood—seeking a better understanding of their life, and ways to make it more positive. ... Read more

Reviews (1)

5-0 out of 5 stars Excellent pragmatic reference
I've known John and Janice Baldwin for about 2 years now and have always admired their devout interest in 'practical applications' of sociological science to the real world -- and, most importantly, real people. This is the raison d'etre of their well-attended and well-received Human Sexuality courses at UCSB, as well as John's courses on pragmatism and *ethical* captalism. The Baldwins genuinely care about people-- this book helps bring sociology 'to the people' in their excellent tradition. Enjoy! ... Read more

68. Applied Behavior Analysis
by John O. Cooper, Timothy E. Heron, William L. Heward
list price: $131.00
our price: $131.00
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 067520223X
Catlog: Book (1987)
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Sales Rank: 136126
Average Customer Review: 5 out of 5 stars
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Reviews (4)

5-0 out of 5 stars Remains as relevant today as when it came out
Used this text way back in graduate school and now use it to teach my own classes in applied behavior analysis. You won't find a more comprehensive introduction to the field of ABA: principles, research methods, techniques, applications, you name it. I still refer to it on a regular basis. Despite the promise otherwise by the authors, I hope they give us the next edition some day soon.

5-0 out of 5 stars As good as it gets
This book provides the best text-book style introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis there is. The writing is straight-forward and well-organized. The only thing one could wish for is a second edition, but in the foreword it states they promised their families that there woulnd't be one :) That's ok, it provides all the groundwork one needs to read and understand the literature since then.

5-0 out of 5 stars Undoubtedly, one of the bibles of ABA
I work as a behavioral consultant for children with autism and have read hundreds of ABA-related books -- good, bad, and ugly. I first came into contact with this one while getting my Masters in ABA from Columbia U. It was the foundation of several of my courses and definitely the source I return to most often in my consulting work. The book is expensive but well, well worth it. I highly recommend it. Here's a chapter list so that you can judge for yourself:

1. Definition & Characteristics of ABA... 2. Basic Concepts (behavior, respondent/operant conditioning, reinforcers, and three-term contingencies)... 3. Selecting & Defining Target Behavior... 4. Measuring & Recording Behavior... 5. Planning & Directing Observational Procedures... 6. Production & Interpretation of Graphic Data Displays... 7. Introduction to Analysis... 8. Reversal & Alternating Treatment Designs... 9. Multiple Baseline & Changing Criterion Designs... 10. Planning, Replicating & Evaluating Research in ABA... 11. Operant Reinforcement... 12. Schedules of Reinforcement... 13. Stimulus Control... 14. Behavioral Shaping... 15. Behavior Chains... 16. Imitation... 17. Extinction... 18. Decreasing Behavior with Differential Reinforcement... 19. Punishment by Contingent Presentation of a Stimulus... 20. Overcorrection... 21. Time Out from Positive Reinforcement... 22. Response Cost... 23. Contingency Contracting... 24. Token Economy... 25. Group-Oriented Contingencies... 26. Self-Management... 27. Promoting the Generality of Behavior Change... 28. Communicating the Results of Behavior Change Efforts...

-- (also includes references, glossary, and name and subject indices)

5-0 out of 5 stars Excellent
This book is definitely a great reference book as well as an excellent text book. It is very specific and truly informational. I would recommend it to anyone thinking of going into ABA ... Read more

69. What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (Series in Affective Science)
by Paul Ekman, Erika Rosenberg
list price: $54.50
our price: $54.50
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0195104471
Catlog: Book (1998-02-01)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Sales Rank: 271469
Average Customer Review: 5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

While people have known for centuries that facial expressions can reveal what people are thinking and feeling, it is only recently that the face has been studied scientifically for what it can tell us about internal states, social behavior, and psychopathology.Today, due to the availability of sophisticated measuring systems, a wealth of new research on facial behavior has contributed enormously to our understanding of human psychology. The chapters in this volume represent the state-of-the-art in this critical field.They address such key issues as the dynamic and morphological differences between voluntary and involuntary expressions, the relationship between what people show on their facesand what they say they feel, and whether it is possible to use facial behavior to distinguish among psychiatric populations. The book also includes updated commentary by the authors on those works which may have appeared previously in the journal literature.As an essential reference for all those working in the field of facial analysis and expression, this volume will be indispensable for a wide range of professionals and students in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, and behavioral medicine. ... Read more

Reviews (1)

5-0 out of 5 stars Emotion, Personality, Theraputic Outcomes, and More
I am a contributor to this book and know many of the other authors therein, but receive no
compensation from its sale. Having declared this possible conflict of interest, I can recommend
purchase of this book if you are interested in learning what can be discovered from the face
through measurement of facial muscular action in scientific research. Its approximately 500
pages contains 22 scientific articles, mostly published previously in journals, that report
research studies conducted in the late 1970s to the early 1990s, most towards this later date.
These articles cover a diverse range of topics, methods, and principles having to do with the
relationship between facial expression and emotion; clinical diagnosis, treatment, and outcome;
and other related issues. The editors's selection process, based on the use in the study of the
Facial Action Coding System (FACS, a method for measuring facial behavior), has included
competent research with above average interest, thoughtful reflection, theoretical and practical
relevance, and plain good sense that generally exceeds what you might find, for example, in your
typical social psychology journal. The authors of the articles work in many places around the
world and represent most of the people in the vanguard of the FACS movement and the new
approaches to studying behavior and emotion. This book is particularly helpful if you are new to
the study of facial behavior or have not been diligent in collecting the important articles using
facial measurement, which are published many different journals. The book provides an efficient
vehicle to catch up on the significant issues, findings, trends, and controversies in the areas
covered, including the quality and usefulness of the information provided by the face, the
relationship of facial expression to emotion, whether emotion is a coherent response system,
differences between genuine and false smiles, expression in pathological states, affect in the
psychotheraputic process, etc. The included works provide a solid foundation for understanding
how facial measurement contributes to investigating behavioral science problems. Even in the
unlikely event that you have previously read all the published works reprinted here, this volume
has value because each chapter has at least one afterward that expands on the original work in
revealing and useful ways that bring you up to date on the topic, and there is one thought
provoking article by Ekman et al. on the relation between facial behavior and psychiatric
outcomes that you will not find elsewhere. Also, the editors include their own new chapters
introducing, and finally, summarizing and integrating the works included. A table of contents,
forward by M. Brewster Smith, original source references, author list, and a lengthy subject
index are included. Take a look at the table of contents provided on this site to see more
details. The overall statement of this book is that the face contains important data about
concepts that are vital to diverse behavioral science issues. You will find that the perspective
of this book is different from several other books on facial expression currently in print. If
you are contemplating research on emotion, facial behavior, non-verbal behavior, and related
topics, this book is a helpful guide containing useful background; if you are currently planning
research in these fields, it is indispensible reading. ... Read more

70. Turning Numbers into Knowledge: Mastering the Art of Problem Solving
by Jonathan Koomey
list price: $34.95
our price: $34.95
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0970601905
Catlog: Book (2003-04-01)
Publisher: Analytics Press
Sales Rank: 101606
Average Customer Review: 4.88 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

Mastering the art of problem solving takes more than proficiency with basic calculations; it requires understanding how people use information, recognizing the importance of ideology, learning the art of storytelling, and acknowledging the important distinction between facts and values. Intended for professors, managers, entrepreneurs, and students, this guide addresses these and other essential skills. With clear prose, quotations, and exercises for solving problems in the real world, this book serves as an ideal training manual for those who are new to or intimidated by quantitative analysis and an excellent refresher for those who have more experience but want to improve the quality of their data, the clarity of their graphics, and the cogency of their arguments. ... Read more

Reviews (16)

5-0 out of 5 stars It's Invaluable and Fun!
Turning Numbers Into Knowledge deals with the fundamentals of analysis, research, and problem solving, not with their fashionable technical adornments. It is a tremendous resource for anyone wanting to critically review anything from costly, technical studies to everyday rhetorical argument.

The adjectives that came to my mind as I read Turning Numbers Into Knowledge were, "Engaging, comprehensive, down-to-Earth, well-researched, well-written, well-planned, well-documented, creative, helpful, entertaining, filled with useful resource material, user-friendly, personal, witty, and wise."

Whereas I had anticipated a ponderous technical tract, Turning Numbers Into Knowledge entertainingly deals with problem solving and analysis in its broadest context, including the often-ignored yet critical human elements. Because of its breadth, I can scarcely think of any scientist, social scientist, student, researcher, writer, or policy analyst who could not benefit from this book. Its lessons are brought home with cleverly chosen anecdotes and lucid examples. The reader is rewarded frequently with wonderful quotations and great cartoons.

What Koomey says about use of the Internet, web sites, and information dissemination over the Internet also has valuable implications for modern administrators, project managers, and executive directors whose organizational management responsibilities increasingly include management and dissemination of information.

As with other classics, I expect Turning Numbers Into Knowledge to be in print for a long time and would not be surprised to see students a generation from now relying on a future edition. Jon Koomey is a hard worker, clear thinker, and has produced an extraordinarily useful book that will help the practitioners of science, research, policy analysis, and journalism in the pursuit of truth.

5-0 out of 5 stars Great treatise on critical thinking and organization
"Turning Numbers Into Knowledge: Mastering the Art of Problem Solving" should be required reading for anyone engaged in producing, reading, or analysing information. Based on the title one might assume that I mean numerical information, but that is not the case at all. The basic principles, such as how to sift through information and the importance of documentation of sources, are important parts of any information product. In fact, except for the sections on graphs, tables, normalizing data and a few others, the rest of the book (fully at least three quarters of it) is dedicated to determining what constitutes good information, good techniques, good analysis, good documentation, etc. This is a book on problem solving techniques and analysis of the information products of others.

Filled with useful tools and tips for problem solving under real-life situations it is one of the most useful books available. "Turning Numbers Into Knowledge: Mastering the Art of Problem Solving" is a masterful work in the area of critical analysis and a highly recommended read for anyone involved in creating or using information of any kind.

3-0 out of 5 stars not for the technically minded
This is an entertaining and well written book on some of the do's and don'ts of data analysis. To quote from Dr. Beers review below, "The main emphasis is on the art of data interpretation." Indeed there are useful tools here for performing sanity checks and for asking critical questions about all sorts of data collections. ... The examples are, at best, sketchy and few in number. The anectodes are amusing but not terribly informative. I would have much preferred more concrete examples and further discussion on some technical matters. ....

5-0 out of 5 stars TNIK: For scientists & non-scientists alike
I began to enjoy the book almost from the very beginning, the writing style is easy to follow, and its explanations are straight to the point.

Non-scientists & scientists alike will find useful:
1) the methods and ideas for analyzing and testing for plausibility the everyday information encountered in the media,
pointers to finding logical flaws in arguments, and common tricks used by presenters in order to be ambiguous or downright deceptive.
2) simple methods of keeping facts at your fingertips
3) the chapters on life improvement and work-efficiency which made this book pay for itself in a matter of days.
4) helpful links to the Internet and to other books.

Scientists and Engineers in particular will find useful
· The back-of-the-envelope numerical methods. Many sci/engs do not use them enough.
· The description of the scientific process, of which they are (often unconsciously) a part.
· Suggestions on efficient, non-sloppy data analysis. The examples on data analysis are somewhat geared to the field of Energy Analysis, but easy to understand and generalize; in the process I learnt something about that field.
· suggestions for clear, concise presentation of text and figures during presentation of results.

This is also a good book to lend to a student intern or new employee to teach them back of the envelope statistical methods, how to get organized, and good habits, both organizational and data-analysis wise.

5-0 out of 5 stars Among the most influential books I've read
I was expecting a book about quantitative methods and advanced problem solving techniques. What I got, instead, was a book that didn't even discuss numbers until page 111 of a 221 page book, and it was lite on problem solving techniques. Although it was not what I expected it turned out to be one of those rare books that deeply influences and provides fresh perspectives. The book led me on a journey that broke the process of critical thinking into manageable steps. Among the things I learned were:

* Examine key factors, such as information, attention and action within the context of a cycle of actions that begins with goals, and moves through execution, how events in the external world influence the meeting of those goals, an evaluation and refinement of goals. Then the process starts anew.

* Structured methods for getting organized. The techniques given are simple, yet powerful.How to collect and critically analyze data and information, common fallacies and how to spot them. Two of my favorite parts that reinforce these are then single-page chart titled "What Scientists Say, and What They Mean", and Chapter 20 (Uncertainty Principle and the Mass Media).

* The straightforward process of numerical analysis, using relatively simple math techniques to make sense of numbers and turn them into knowledge, is priceless. What makes this part of the book valuable is that the author integrates the preceding chapters that lead you to a critical thinking mindset with common sense and techniques that are within the grasp of high school students. It looks easy, but is testimony to the author's exceptional ability to communicate and inspire.

Overall this book is one of my personal favorites and one that I recommend to colleagues. Another book that complements this one nicely is Systems Thinking: Managing Chaos and Complexity by Jamshid Gharajedaghi. ... Read more

71. Emotions Revealed : Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life
by Paul Ekman
list price: $15.00
our price: $10.20
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 080507516X
Catlog: Book (2004-03-01)
Publisher: Owl Books
Sales Rank: 3405
Average Customer Review: 4.5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

“Beautifully interweaves research with anecdotes, recommendations, and the behind-the-scenes flubs, accidental discoveries and debates . . . that are the essence of scientific inquiry.” —Scientific American

A renowned expert in nonverbal communication, Paul Ekman led a revolution in our scientific understanding of emotions. In Emotions Revealed, he assembles his research and theories to provide a comprehensive look at the evolutionary roots of human emotions, including anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and happiness.

Drawing on decades of fieldwork, Ekman shows that emotions are deeply embedded in the human species. In the process, he answers such questions as: What triggers emotions and can we stop them? How does our body signal to others whether we are slightly sad or anguished, peeved or enraged? Can we learn to distinguish between a polite smile and the genuine thing? Can we ever truly control our emotions? Unique exercises and photographs help readers identify emotions in themselves and others.

Emotions Revealed is a practical, mind-opening, and potentially life-changing exploration of science and self.
... Read more

Reviews (7)

5-0 out of 5 stars Better Than 6 Months of Therapy (at least for me)
I'm an extremely rational and intelligent person.Over the course of my life, I've spent months and months in touchy-feely therapy being told to "be IN my emotions", which I will be the first to admit is better than being "out of my emotions", but never really gave me the "ah ha" I was looking for.

Dr. Ekman's book did. It was so nice to be able to learn the science behind emotions and how they work on many different levels.It was beyond nice to have a book rooted in science, rather than what some person thinks may be true about a subject.I have a totally different relationship with my emotions now and they seem almost like brand new toys that I get to play with all day long!

OK, I admit the writing style could be better, a few more tables and a more spartan use of the word 'I', but it wasn't hard to get past that and the content more than made up for it.This book has gone onto my life list of books everybody should read.

3-0 out of 5 stars Interesting science, but poorly organized and written.
Who isn't captivated by the unspoken language of expression.Very few in science today would dispute that non-verbal expression contributes a signficant amount of "information rate transfer" in every human to human exchange.

That's why I ordered this book.I was curious to know how the mechanics of non-verbal expression (manifested in the face) generally worked.Paul Ekman has been at the forefront of this research since the mid-sixties.Before ordering, I spent some time at his site (of same name as the book) and was impressed enough to do what the site pushes you to do: order the book...

I was mildly dissapointed.While the book has plenty of interesting factoids, from the beginning it felt way overwritten.Almost like the author had a 24 page lesson plan and decided to stretch it out to 240 pages.In my opinion, there is allot of "fluff".Granted, some may be interested in reading 20 pages about the fact that emotions are nature (vs. nurture) across all cultures...well, that was hotly debated 20 years ago, now it's generally accepted as fact...move on.

The meat of my issue with the book is that it should have been a lesson plan.My favorite part of the book is at the end when there are 14 pages of faces with barely registered emotion on them that you have to discern the meaning in.I wanted that throughout the book.

If you have a particular fascination with this subject, I'd recommend ordering the CD's and using the interactive lesson plan.Skip the book.

Hope this was helpful.

3-0 out of 5 stars Not a lot of useful information
I got this book after reading Malcolm Gladwell's lovely New Yorker piece on Paul Ekman.I was looking for an accessable introduction to FACS, Ekman's facial coding system, but this book wasn't it.Emotions Revealed is perhaps too accessable, with copious fluff and very little real content.

After an introduction to Ekmans work, the book is divided into chapters on each emotion.Each chapter is further subdivided into: 1) anecdotes about people feeling emotions (useless), 2) at most two pages on the facial expression associated with the emotion (the meat, if you will), 3) speculation on why you might feel the emotion (useless), and 4) suggestions on how to react if you see this emotion on others (situation dependant & therefore useless).

Ekman's strength is in the clinical study of facial expression, not in writing anecdotal psychobabble.Skip this book if you already know the gist of his work.

5-0 out of 5 stars Get the training CDs as well!
The book is outstanding but you should definitely get the 2 TRAINING CDs on microexpressions, available from the website of the same name as the book.

5-0 out of 5 stars WOW, Great Information for all professions
This is an exceptionally well written book with ideas that would benefit all professionals.There are several concepts in this book that I personally found interesting.I highly recommend this book to all that deal with adverse environments, which of course is all of us. ... Read more

72. Ain't No Makin' It: Aspirations and Attainment in a Low-Income Neighborhood
by Jay MacLeod
list price: $36.00
our price: $36.00
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0813315158
Catlog: Book (1995-06-01)
Publisher: Westview Press
Sales Rank: 89887
Average Customer Review: 3.86 out of 5 stars
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Reviews (7)

5-0 out of 5 stars Moving and Troublesome
I read this years ago in an anthropology/sociology class in college, and I can say that it still carries as much weight today as it did then. Jay manages to weave entertaining narration with factual reporting, resulting in a moving work that points a critical finger at our society. I've actually met the author, and can say that he is an honest, engaging and professional writer. At no point did he milk the drama angle of this work, nor use it to further his own agenda. I noticed another reviewer called this book "socialist junk"; to this person I say: just because this work is a testament to some of the failures of America's precious capitalist model does not immediately make it socialist. Moreover, if socialism means having a conscience about racism and socioeconomic discrimination, then sign me up!

1-0 out of 5 stars Socialist Junk
This book did a great job of showing how research can be distorted any way one desires. I was forced to read this text for a Social Anthropology class. The boys that MacLeod follows throughout his research fail because the just didn't try hard enough. The one boy who almost succeeds fails not because of social constraints but because he could not shed his tendancy towards poor behavior- such as having children at too young an age.
This book only reinforces the "poor me" mantra- "its Capitalism's fault, it creates poverty."

Coming from "ahem" less than savory roots myself, I can tell you that Capitalism's fostering of competition does nothing but good in society. Those who have the drive to succeed, do so (I'll be attending my first year of law school in the fall), and those that have no self dicipline don't succeed.

No amount of education can change that. While the boys followed in the text didn't have the greatest educational beginnings, one of them did make it to a community college and could have made it further, but blew it by getting a girl pregnant. That's not capitalism's fault - I think its more the fault of the "free love" culture. This book is a socialist's best friend - claiming that free markets don't really produce social mobility, and producing examples to "prove" it. Too bad the failures of these examples had nothing to do with capitalism - and everything to do with a lack of drive.

4-0 out of 5 stars A study of the persistance of poverty in a housing project
This book provides a thorough account of the aspirations and expectations of two male peer groups residing in a public housing project. Both peer groups, although originating from similar class locations, have distinct aspirations resulting from their racial lived experiences. The peer group consisting mostly of young black men (The Brothers) supported the achievement ideology that we live in an open society. They viewed the hardships faced by previous generations was a result of racial discrimination barriers that (theoretically) cease to exist. They applied themselves in socially acceptable practices such as excelling in school and keeping out of trouble. In contrast, the peer group consisting of mostly young white men (Hallway Hangers) rejected the achievement ideology and had low aspirations of their position in the labor market. They realized through family and friends that their chances of getting out of the projects is slim leading most of the Hallway Hangers dropped out of school and smoked dope, among other illegal activities. Despite the disjuncture of both groups' levels of aspirations, both failed to get out of poverty. MacLeod hung out with both of these male peer groups in an effort to understand their daily meanings of the role of education and their future aspirations rather than relying exclusively on statistical data.

I give this book four stars because MacLeod failed to take into consideration the aspirations and expectations of young women. Instead he concentrated solely on the role of race and class. I would recommend this book to anyone who wishes to understand how societal structures restrict and limit the actions of individuals. Furthermore this book challenges the myth that education creates a level playing field for all regardless of race or class (and gender too ~ although not addressed here).

5-0 out of 5 stars Great Reading
This book shows the lives of two groups of teens living in poverty and low-income areas. This book gives their perspective of the acheivement ideology and how everyone just is not meant to climb the ladder of social mobility.

4-0 out of 5 stars The American Achievement Ideology is False
This book explores the lives of two groups of inner-city teenagers. One group adamently believes in the achievement ideology, and the other group rejects it. Hence the title, the outcome for both groups is the same. I recommend this book to those who refuse to cast away their pre-conceived notions that those who live in poverty are lazy and stupid. This book is a painfully real account of the different ways in which society plays a detrimental role in the lives of the less fortunate, while allowing the upper class to place the blame on the victims themselves (in the name of the acheivement ideology). ... Read more

73. The Thinker's Toolkit : 14 Powerful Techniques for Problem Solving
list price: $16.00
our price: $10.88
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 0812928083
Catlog: Book (1998-06-30)
Publisher: Three Rivers Press
Sales Rank: 8412
Average Customer Review: 4.14 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

An invaluable resource for any manager or professional, this book offers a collection of proven, practical methods for simplifying any problem and making faster, better decisions every time. ... Read more

Reviews (14)

5-0 out of 5 stars A nice reference book...a cookbook for decision making
This book is a nice reference that captures the majority of problem solving techniques: a cookbook for decision making. The analytical techniques range from problem restatement to constructing an advanced utility matrix. It's useful in both daily life, business, and science.

Thinker's Toolkit also contains very useful examples and exercises. They immediately demonstrate to the reader where common decision making falls short.

On the down side, the book is a 'dry' read at times.

4-0 out of 5 stars Good reference for problem analysis - Bush should read this
I found this book whilst searching for a framework for basic problem solving. This book provides 14 good techniques, the most important I believe are Causal Flow Diagram, Hypothesis Testing and Utility Matrix.

Actually I was triggered to buy this book is because the author was an ex-CIA. I guess when he left, he brought all his techniques with him in his head!

I wish the Bush Administration and Tony Blair should refer to this book (especially the Hypothesis Testing) when they have "irrefutable evidence" that Saddam Hussein has WMD in his cellar.

The reason I did not give him 5-stars is because it is all texts and tables which makes it a dry read.

5-0 out of 5 stars A worthwhile read
Some of the material reminds me of operations research techniques. Gives you something hang your hat on as you think about a problem.

1-0 out of 5 stars Mildly interesting. Horrible writing.
The books begins with a series of interesting stories on the psychology of decision-making. Once it gets into the Powerful Techniques it becomes trite, boring and difficult to read. Poorly explained ideas, and poorly worded exercise questions make the book unbearable.

For example, throughout the book the author provides different stories describing different problems (say, that a bakery's bread is coming out of the oven inexplicably burned) and then it asks you to state the problem. The problem is that the bread is burned! But what the author actually *means* to ask (which is clear only upon reading the sample answers he provides) is "What are the potential causes of the problem?" These are two very different questions, both of which are important. Problem solving is an exercise in symbolic logic. A book that has its roots firmly planted in symbolic logic cannot afford to suffer from poor editing and word choice.

Anyone that is reasonably adept in a technical field (engineering, software, et cetera) will find it interesting at first, but it quickly becomes boring and of questionable value. I give it one star - despite the fact that it may be valuable to some people - because I believe that authors who write poorly should not publish books on technical subjects.

4-0 out of 5 stars Solid decision making made easy
Enjoyed the book immensely. Here, in amongst much 'release your genius' type stuff is something a little less salesmanship (on offer is just a toolkit and not the possibility of 'unleashing' your latent 'genius') and a good deal more of useable material.
In a business context the ability to establish a framework might not, at first, seem to be something missing - but after sitting through too many meetings where the criteria for establishing a decision is not known the ability to pick one of the tools from this book and get everyone thinking through the same process is worth more than the price alone. Less angst, better decisions. ... Read more

74. Therapies for School Behavior Problems : A Handbook of Practical Interventions (Jossey Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series)
by Howard L.Millman, Charles E.Schaefer, JeffreyCohen
list price: $117.00
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Asin: 0875894836
Catlog: Book (1980-12-05)
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Sales Rank: 649584
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Book Description

Simplify your search for effective therapies with this comprehensive volume, filled with several different, yet often complementary approaches to treatment. Provides alternative, proven methods for treating problems such as truancy, disruptiveness, prejudice, anxiety, procrastination, substance abuse, and other common school behavior problems.

... Read more

75. Situated Learning : Legitimate Peripheral Participation (Learning in Doing: Social, Cognitive & Computational Perspectives)
by Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger
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Asin: 0521423740
Catlog: Book (1991-09-27)
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Sales Rank: 89454
Average Customer Review: 5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

In this important theoretical treatise, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger,computer scientist, push forward the notion of situated learning--that learning is fundamentally a social process and not solely in the learner's head. The authors maintain that learning viewed as situated activity has as its central defining characteristic a process they call legitimate peripheral participation. Learners participate in communities of practitioners, moving toward full participation in the sociocultural practices of a community. Legitimate peripheral participation provides a way to speak about crucial relations between newcomers and oldtimers and about their activities, identities, artifacts, knowledge and practice.The communities discussed in the book are midwives, tailors, quartermasters, butchers, and recovering alcoholics, however, the process by which participants in those communities learn can be generalized to other social groups. ... Read more

Reviews (2)

5-0 out of 5 stars situated learning
The book is easy to read, extremely interesting and gives a new perspective on learning. In this type of learning the learner models behavior of the teacher. Questions are not asked, behavior is not explained and all of the learning takes place as a result of observation and immitation of observed behavior.

5-0 out of 5 stars You'll need a light-heart to bear the blacksmith's anvil.
I wonder if two people have ever had so much fun writing a book together as Jean Lave and Etiene Wenger. Lave's choice of a cover illustration supports my point: she found the artwork at a beer-fest while visiting friends and studying in Europe. Lave and Wenger are world reknowned scholars who would rather spend the afternoon in a butcher's kitchen than hobb-knobbing at the faculty lounge. With "Situated Learning," the reader is invited to follow Lave and Wenger as they ponder the consequences of doors, tables, timeclocks, work schedules, and union contracts on human development and potential.
After reading "Situated Learning," it is difficult to imagine the constellation of concepts that make up our modern thinking of what learning is without Lave and Wenger's contributions. Like the artwork on the book's cover, and the story of its origins, Lave and Wenger's analysis restoke the fires fueling the learning sciences. It is not an overstatement to say that this short, sometimes difficult to follow book, is responsible for a whole new generation of thinking and research on learning and its sociocultural consequences.
Their analytical objective was simple: dethrone the dominant conceptions of learning in the social sciences and everyday life. In their place, Lave and Wenger offer and illustrate a handful of concepts that students of learning across the social and applied sciences are now usings to inspire new insights on the origins of social ascension and strife.
I recommend that the reader, too, pick up this book with the intent of having some fun: let your inhibitions, and intellectual reservations, down for a couple of hours and enjoy the show as Lave and Wenger take off the Emporer's (modern psychology's, that is) clothes. Readers need to approach this book with a light-heart, as its simplicity and substance leave one feeling as if the dominant, 20th century schools of thought on learning have placed a blacksmith's anvil on the center of one's chest. Thank goodness Lave and Wenger have brought our attention to this matter.
Needless to say, I highly recommend the book. ... Read more

76. The Mommy Brain: How Motherhood Makes Us Smarter
by Katherine Ellison
list price: $25.00
our price: $16.50
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Asin: 0465019056
Catlog: Book (2005-04-13)
Publisher: Basic Books
Sales Rank: 12980
Average Customer Review: 2.0 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

A Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist implodes the myth of the dumbed-down mom, offering startling scientific evidence that motherhood gives women unexpected mental advantages

Generations of mothers have been told-and believed-that having a baby means checking their own brains at the delivery room door.

"The Mommy Brain" usually refers to a head full of feeding times, soccer schedules, and nursery rhymes, at the expense of creative or challenging ideas. But recent scientific research paints a dramatically different and far rosier picture.

Journalist Katherine Ellison draws on cutting-edge neuroscience research to demonstrate that, contrary to long-established wisdom that having children dumbs you down, raising children may make moms smarter. From enhanced senses in pregnancy and early motherhood to the alertness and memory skills necessary to manage like a pro, to a greater aptitude for risk-taking and a talent for empathy and negotiation, these advantages not only help mothers in raising their children, but in their work and social lives as well.

Filled with lively (and often hilarious) stories of multitasking moms at home and on the job, The Mommy Brain encourages all of us to cast aside conventional thinking and discover the positive ways in which having children changes mothers' brains for the better. ... Read more

Reviews (1)

2-0 out of 5 stars A little thin
I was disappointed with this book.In an effort to keep the book from being too scientific, Ellison waters down the material too far for my comfort.Also, there are a lot of unanswered questions in this field of research.Time after time, Ellison poses an interesting question, and then is forced to answer her own question by saying, "We don't know yet."Then she moves on to idle speculation to fill in the blanks.

Also, my copy of the book was missing pages 17-40, and had two copies of pages 41-64. ... Read more

77. Man and His Symbols
list price: $7.99
our price: $7.19
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Asin: 0440351839
Catlog: Book (1968-08-15)
Publisher: Laurel
Sales Rank: 5795
Average Customer Review: 4.6 out of 5 stars
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Reviews (30)

4-0 out of 5 stars Easy Intro to Jung
In Man and his Symbols (1961), Jung's last book, Jung and four of his disciples (Von Franz, Henderson, Jaffé, and Jacobi) team up to introduce the world to the collective unconscious and its manifestations in mythology, art, dreams, and even science.

Jung suggests that man's greatest adventure lies in the exploration of the inner world of the psyche. By getting in touch with the unconscious (especially through dreams), one is supposedly able to activate latent guiding powers that will help him become a stronger individual. Jaffé's essay details a case where a Jungian anaylsis is successful, and it convinced me.

For a basic grasp of the collective unconscious and the archetypal symbols and how they relate to you, this book serves. It's very easy to understand, and its simple language and many illustrations make it easy to work through.

The only disappointment is that the book is too simple. Given only a taste of the basic concepts, you are left wanting more depth and a wider discussion of Jung's ideas. As Ms. Von Franz says in the closing essay, "This book sketches only an infinitesimal part of his [Jung's] vast contribution to this new field of psychological discovery."

5-0 out of 5 stars Very Good Summation
This book provides a good summary of Jungian dream analysis. Instead of bogging down with highly detailed and esoteric references, it gives the reader easy to follow explanations. But it is not overly dumbed down. You still feel like you are learning useful and relatively advanced information.

The main body of the book is comprised of several essays, written by a select group of Jung's peers, which carefully explain his work. And Jung himself edited the essays, in order to assure that his messages were crystal clear. Jung provides an excellent introduction chapter as well.

If you are looking for an easy to digest book that covers Jung's amazing dream analysis techniques, Man and His Symbols is made for you.

4-0 out of 5 stars A good introduction to Carl Jung
I'd suggest this book for anyone who wishes to obtain a general understanding of Carl Jung's theories.

Man and his symbols gives a general outline of predominant themes that exist in various cultures. Almost every culture shares certain common archtypes. We can trace commonalities in various fertility gods, the belief in angels, demons, etc...

His theories allude to a common origin in these beliefs as well as certain experiences that seem to be universal to the human condition. This book was helpful but I'd recommend his later work; Archtypes and The Collective Unconsious for a greater understanding...

4-0 out of 5 stars Know Thyself!
Two names are synonomous with the field of psychology/psychoanalysis, Freud and Jung. This is reputedly Jung's last project/publication before his death in 1961 and is an excellent primer and synopsis of his work in the field. Jung edited this book and wrote the first chapter on the importance of symbols before unleashing writings from his students/protegees.
As a whole this book covers an incredible array of subjects, relating in layperson's terms the importance of symbols in the unconscious, the role of the unconscious through dreams in communicating these symbols to the analsand and analyst. I believe Jaffe, though could stand corrected examines various motifs and symbols synthesising the previous works into an observation of Jung's theories on the collective unconscious and its influence on individuals and the process of individuation.
This is as I said an excellent primer because although it is a good text for those taking psych 101(I am excluded from this group so don't know if it is text, but could/should be), it is written with a clarity that carries a universal appeal, making it recommended reading for anyone who wishes to understand psychology better and more important perhaps anyone who wishes to understand themselves better without resorting to new agey dream dictionaries.

5-0 out of 5 stars Symbols as imprints from God?
The Swiss Carl Jung and the Austrian Sigmund Freud are the annointed fathers of Psychanalisys, with due precedence to be ascribed to Freud, some 25 years Jung's senior and who broke loose with early tradition who saw the manifestation of the unconscious as unmeaningful. Both were men of the XIX century but their achievements changed the face of earth in the XX century . The excelent book "Man and his Symbols" is in all respects emblematic of many important facets of Jung's thoughts and ideas on the unconscious, being one of the last books he wrote and/or supervised before his death in old age, which ocurred many years after Freud's passed away in 1939 in London. In fact, the deaths of the two most important figures in Psychanalisys are emblematic of their lives, Freud dying an agonizing death to throat cancer and asking for the final shot which would take him to the depths of eternity (whatever this may be in Freud's mind) whilst Jung died naturally of old age and wholy mystical, almost religious. "Man and His Symbols" is quintessential Jung, with plenty of his vigor and energy, even if he did not write himself all the six essays of the book, but only a very important one concerning the fundamental role Dreams play in our life as a whole. It is in fact the only book by Carl Jung originally targeted to the non-professional reader and devoid of almost all psychanalytic jargon, thus making the reading of the book a pleasant experience to the non-professional reader like myself; all the five essaysts are bona fide Jung followers or adherents to his ideas. The idea of having a book targeted to the layman drew a lot of personal energy from Jung, always keen on having the right word for the right psychical situation (the same could be said of Freud). But, in the end, he gave in and agreed on the project's idea which was to popularize Jung's ideas throughout the world.

The book is an important document of Jung's thought in the final days of his long and prolific life and stresses the many differences in important points of view he had vis-'a-vis Sigmund Freud, who, in the beginning of their relationship in 1906, was almost a father figure to the younger Jung and to whom Jung was supposed to be the heir apparent in the field of Psychanalisys. But Jung and Freud splitted apart their relationship on very personnal matters, due to Freud's lack of confidence in anyone but himself. The acerbic and bitter feud between the two, is documented in the many letters they exchanged for almost a decade and, in my opinion, Freud is the only one to blame, being a man of extremely bad temper and all too skitishy, with an overpowering ego with no admission of any wrinkle in the front of his followers scouts . There is a pretty much good medium sized book who documents the increasingly acerbic correspondence between the two, called "The Freud-Jung Letters" and which is also a good read, even in the available abridged version. In the same vein, see the quasi autobiographic essay by Jung and Anne Jafet, "Memories, Dreams and Reflections", where Jung (hesitatingly) talks about having reached in his last days the equilibrium between conscious and unconscious life, something he said to be one of the most important achievements of his.

In Jung's view, symbols are important archetypal manifestations of man's powerfull unconscious and occur in each and every human society, primitive or advanced, and could not be simply dismissed or ruled out, as always civilized societies do, as only belonging to ancient backward peoples. According to Jung, symbols are archetypal manifestations of our innermost unconscious mental life and have an important role in balancing our waking life as long as we let them play unscathed and don't see them as something that we must be scared of. But, exactly from where symbols come? How do they get formed? In Jung's view, nobody will never know a precise answer for that question, which is to be placed in the dominion of the perpetually Unkown, and all societies seem to think that they were formed many aeons ago in the time of their ancestors, an always wrong assumption when we know that even ancient Greeks and Egyptians thought this way. Symbols, as many other things, simply do Exist and Are and play an important function in helping men by balancing their acts and lives, having although a disruptive influence whenever not correctly interpreted and unduly repressed. As Jung remembers, Goethe said in Faust: In the beginning there was the ACT. Symbols may be a timeless representation of things to be done and not to be thought out. But what are they? Couldn't they be messages from God? Different from Freud, a very irreligious man and who bashed even Jewish religion in his magistral books "Moses and Monotheism" and "Totem and Taboo", the open-minded and mystical Jung thinks that symbols can even be messages from an upper entity. Civilized men, betting all their chips in Reason as supreme, that is, in the primacy of a conscious (rational) attitude towards life, have increasingly attached an "off-limits" tag to the unconscious, thus spliting the psyche into two entities apart, not benefiting from the positive influence the unconscious may and should have on our being as a whole.

The many black and white pictures and images profusely portrayed in the book help the reader a lot in understanding the jungian message about the significance of symbols and this paperback amazingly lightweight edition is agreeable to handle and flip and to carry along with one self. "Man and his Symbols" is a pretty much good book and I hope you enjoy it as much as I did. ... Read more

78. How the Mind Works
by Steven Pinker
list price: $17.95
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Asin: 0393318486
Catlog: Book (1999-01-01)
Publisher: W.W. Norton & Company
Sales Rank: 4568
Average Customer Review: 3.59 out of 5 stars
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Reviews (139)

5-0 out of 5 stars Steven Pinker's 'How the Mind Works' Précis
Steven Pinker begins his explanation of "How the Mind Works" arguing that the mind is best understood in terms of a computational model and that, in part, by reverse engineering the mind one can understand many aspects of cognition. He also examines why aspects of cognition, such as consciousness, knowledge, meaning, free will, self, morality, etc. still remain beyond the purview of cognitive science. Pinker identifies natural selection as the process which shaped the mind; subsequently, history, cognitive and social psychology, and human ecology are the most important factors which for him continue to shape the mind. The significance of the book lies, in part, in Pinker's differentiation of what reverse engineering can show from what is still beyond the tools of cognitive science. Pinker suggests that the reason biologically unnecessary aspects of human behavior such as language, art, wit, music, literature, etc. are so significant to people and remain problematic may be because scientists don't yet have the cognitive equipment to solve them and suggests that consciousness and free will, for example, may ultimately remain elusive aspects of the mind.

By arguing that "the mind is a system of organs of computation, designed by natural selection to solve the kinds of problems our ancestors faced in their foraging way of life, in particular, understanding and outmaneuvering objects, animals, plants, and other people," (21) Pinker rejects most other views of the mind that have held sway in the last century. By insisting on the complexity of the mind, Pinker claims that a) thinking is a kind of computation used to work with configurations of symbols, b) that the mind is organized into specialized modules or mental organs, c) that the basic logic of the modules is contained in our genetic program, and d) that natural selection shaped these operations to facilitate replication of genes into the next generation (21, 25). Pinker thus shows that the computational model of mind is highly significant because it has solved not only philosophical problems, but also started the computer revolution, posed important neuroscience questions, and provided psychology with a very valuable research agenda (77).

By examining mental processes which are reverse-engineerable, Pinker lays the groundwork for examining which cognitive processes aren't yet understandable. For example, chapter 4, "The Mind's Eye," describes how the mind's vision process turns retinal images into mental representations, how the mind moves "splashes of light to concepts of objects, and beyond them to a kind of interaction between seeing and thinking known as mental imagery" (214). By describing a specific modular process, Pinker shows how this modular process fits together like a puzzle, as well as with other parts of the mind. Taken together the chapters thus also show what processes, such as sentience and especially consciousness, are still not readily explained.

Pinker asks not only how scientists might understand "the psychology of the arts, humor, religion, and philosophy within the theme of this book, that the mind is a naturally selected neural computer" but also why they are so resistantly inscrutable (521). He suggests that the arts "engage not only the psychology of aesthetics but the psychology of status," thus making the arts more readily understood by economics and social psychology (521).

According to Pinker, consciousness, too, resists understanding. He asks: "How could an event of neural information-processing cause the feel of a toothache or the taste of lemon or the color purple?" (558) thus highlighting the important 'Gordian-knot' question of causality in consciousness. In suggesting that such questions are difficult because Homo Sapiens' minds don't have the cognitive equipment to solve them, "because our minds are organs, not pipelines to truth" (561), he emphasizes the significance of natural selection in shaping the mind to solve matters of life and death for our ancestors (356) and leaves open the possibility of explaining consciousness at a later date. Pinker's book is significant, therefore, because it explains both how many aspects of the mind work, as well as what we don't yet know about how the mind works. In his conclusion, Pinker offers only tentative answers about why scientists don't understand consciousness, for example, and leaves open the possibility that we may never understand it.

5-0 out of 5 stars brilliant
with simple, familiar language MIT professor Pinker delves into how the mind evolved and how it works. Of special interest to me were the parallells he drew between computer code (logic) and brain tasks. Easy to read (considering the material) and right on as far as factual material goes, 5 stars for me. He could have cut the book down to ~500 pages or so (i struggled through most of the chapter on perception and finally just skipped on) but overall a great book.

3-0 out of 5 stars In and Out of his element
Steven Pinker certainly knows his stuff when it comes to how our brain works. If you have the endurance and are a scientist already, you may get through this incredibly monotonous book. He is able to comprehend the mechanics of how the human mind works, but flops when it comes to drawing any meaningful implications. His views about religion and philosophy are stale and hackneyed. While his discussions about the biology of the brain and its varied mechanisms are within his expertise, his discussions of religion and philosophy are shallow and un-thoughtful-bordering upon arrogance. I would still recommend the book; it is better than counting sheep!

5-0 out of 5 stars Three pounds of hamburger
Great book about how the Brain works but should be titled, "How the Brain Works". Without the Soul, there is no mind. The Soul IS the mind operating within the brain. Three pounds of hamburger with ten trillion neurons flashing is still not MIND!.

3-0 out of 5 stars Families not Species?
I enjoy Mr Pinker's books - this is not the first one I have read.A nd yet I find myself balking at some of it. Indeed I have a personal characteristic, not unique of course, that separates me from a lot of what is said here. A physical characteristic, not an emotional one. Consequently I keep finding myself challenging, defending, objecting .....

Previously I had read 'Why Sex is Fun?' by Jared Diamond and during this book I realised that the title is totally misleading. It suggests that sex was developed by a conscious entity who thought - 'How can I make this work? I know, I'll make it fun.' For me this is back to front. We are here - our species - because sex just happens to be fun. If it were unpleasant or a chore we probably wouldn't be here.

So here we are again looking at evolution and trying to justify human behaviour as somehow driven by genetic imperatives - as if the genes are trying to meet objectives. For me, this is crazy. The genes are the accidental vehicles that keep the species going, but they don't do it by design.

And midway through the chapter on families in Mr Pinker's book I realised something new. All we can tell about our existence from evolution is that the species is still here, and something about the way we do things has contributed to that. But Bonobos are here too and they behave in an entirely different way - despite that, they are successful in terms of evolution. But as soon as Mr Pinker talks of the individual male wanting to promote his genes in advance of another man's I know the argument has gone off the rails. We are now talking about - not persistence of the species (which is demonstrable), but persistence of the particular family (which I suspect is not demonstrable). As far as the species is concerned what difference does it make whose genes are being contributed as long as there is variety.

OK, men do not like to be cuckolded but I don't think that that is an evolutionary matter. The psychological studies need to look elsewhere.

I recommend this book because it will get you thinking, not that I agree with it necessarily.

Recommended other reading:
'Why is Sex Fun?' by Jared Diamond

One that you might like to consider, but I hated:
'The Red Queen' by Matt Ridley ... Read more

79. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences
by Howard Gardner
list price: $21.00
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Asin: 0465025102
Catlog: Book (1993-03-01)
Publisher: Basic Books
Sales Rank: 24071
Average Customer Review: 3.95 out of 5 stars
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Reviews (20)

4-0 out of 5 stars Comments on Garnder's "Musical Intelligence" chapter
I read this book while researching music and intelligence, so what follows is a review and summary of the chapter on musical intelligence. I found the material presented in this chapter very useful in guiding my research; anyone interested in music & mind should definitely check this book out.

Gardner's work on musical intelligence presented in Frames of Mind has had a dramatic influence throughout the field of music-mind research, more so than any other single publication - he is often cited as a definitive expert and referenced in most books, essays, theses, and dissertations on the subject. He asserts that music is its own form of intelligence, unique among a group that includes linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic and personal intelligences. In his writings on musical intelligence, he surveys a wide range of thought and research findings: professional opinions of prominent musicians and composers, anthropological analyses of highly musical cultures, and neurological perspectives examining the evolution of music representations in the brain; just to name a few. Gardner provides a thorough synopsis of musical intelligence in that he addresses it from just about every perspective there is. His arguments are shaped with a forceful tone, but on the other hand they lack depth and proof. This is likely due in part to the fact that his work preceded (and perhaps inspired) the bulk of the available research. His argument that music is in and of itself a distinct form of intelligence is briefly laid out. He presents a wealth of commentary on the subject that is all truly impressive and thought provoking, but then he proceeds to his conclusion by simply stating that the research backs up his argument that music is its own intelligence. He further adds that any sort of relations to the other intelligences are superficial analyses at best. His conclusions are hastily drawn and based heavily on the reader's making assumptions about how the research and his hypothesis are related.

However, from the midst of this colloquium of quotes and references, one can deduce an implied logical theory regarding what composes music intelligence. The research is arranged so that there is a natural flow to it. Gardner starts off by quoting the Polish Hoene Wronsky, who summarized the relationship between music and intelligence rather succinctly: "[Music is] the corporealization of the intelligence that is in sound" (99). When one listens to music, a unique phenomenon occurs. Seemingly arbitrary auditory signals are recorded to memory and deciphered by intellect; meaning is attributed to them after whatever fashion our self wills. For those who have not been the recipients of an extensive music education, the method of processing music would be closest to what Gardner calls the "figural approach"-an intuitive understanding that is reached "based solely upon what is heard irrespective of any theoretical knowledge about music" (110-11). It is at this basic level that musical thought exists, untouched, in its rawest form...indeed, as Levi Strauss noted (among others), "if we can explain music...we may find the key for all thought" (123). In the event that the listener has developed a musical language according to fundamental music theory, they are approaching the music with a "formal mode of thought": this individual "can conceptualize his musical experience in a principled manner" (111). Musical thought is thus translated and transferred over to a common framework that is easily communicated, through speech, performance, or notation. Thus the composer is born - the better one knows the language, the more readily he can proceed to explicate and arrange the initial musical idea into patterns representative of a finished musical work. He has in essence created "passages that articulate or place into proper proportion the elements of the initial idea" (101-2). Aaron Copland calls this initial idea a "gift from heaven", the origin of which still remains the sole element of mystery in the compositional puzzle (102). As if to answer this, another 20th century composer Harold Shapero theorizes to the effect that the mind has a store of all recorded "tonal experiences" that it has absorbed. These are later recalled, and "compounded with remembered emotional experiences" in an act that renders them "more than an acoustical series of tones" (102).

What then, are the components of musical intelligence that make such an act of creative composition possible? Gardner's theory splits everything into two basic categories: pitch (melody) and rhythm. In this schema rhythm simply refers to the underlying beat, while pitch can be used in either a horizontal or vertical aspect. Horizontal pitch refers to the melody-composed of relations among the pitches as they unfold over time. Vertical pitch refers to harmony-when two or more sounds are emitted at the same time, giving rise to a "harmonious" or "dissonant" sound. A separate category that Gardner identifies is that of timbre-the characteristic qualities of a tone, the nuances by means of which emotion and a sense flow can be imbued into the music (104-5). Musical intelligence is made up of the ability to understand and manipulate these components when creating, performing, or listening to music.

All in all, Gardner presents a muddled theory for musical intelligence, which relies largely on the expertise of others, especially in explanation of musical facets. His book provides a good synopsis of the different perspectives and research; but he fails to really add anything unique to the discussion--other than the statement that music is a form of intelligence. The how & why are left to the reader to deduce from the arrangement of quotes & concepts. It needs a clear thesis that describes precisely what musical intelligence is and how the evidence supports this.

5-0 out of 5 stars It's all in how you look at it...
Howard Gardner's 'Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences' is a fascinating book that helps to explain how and why different people seem to learn in different ways and possess different skills and talents. Gardner's main thesis throughout the text is that there is not one thing called intelligence, but rather several different types of intelligence that work together (or, sometimes, play together) inside each person's overall intellectual development and structure.

Gardner begins his discussion with an overview of the idea of multiple intelligences. The idea of different kinds of intelligence is hardly new, as Gardner concedes, but that idea having been formed, it is rarely carried forward save by the most innovative of teachers and thinkers. Why does a person, for instance, remember particular teachers from elementary or secondary school days rather clearly, while others not at all? Beyond the subject matter and interest, there is a manner of teacher connecting with the student that taps into dominant and active kinds of intelligence, despite the subject matter at hand.

Potential Isolation by Brain Damage
This establishes an autonomy of the function of a particular kind of intelligence from others, thus helping demonstrate uniqueness and separation.

The Existence of Idiot Savants, Prodigies, etc.
That certain kinds of intelligence can be highly developed in some to an extraordinary level also helps demonstrate uniqueness - for instance, rarely is the musical genius likewise a genius in all (or even many) other intellectual areas.

An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations
There must be something that the intelligence processes or does in a particular way differently from others - for example, we process mathematical information and linguistic information in different ways.

Distinctive Development History
Intelligence, even if gifted naturally, has a development line that can be traced from earlier to later proficiency.

Evolutionary History and Plausibility
Intelligence can evolve to higher levels (this is readily seen in science and mathematics); likewise, intelligence can be lost in different arenas.

Experimental Data Support
Intelligences can be isolated and studied - linguistic and spatial abilities are often used as experiments easily documented.

Psychometric Finding Support
While the IQ test is hardly the final arbiter, there are ways of materially charting the relative state of intelligences of people in comparison with one another.

Susceptibility to Symbolic Expression
Intelligences should have a means of symbolic expression and transmission - linguistic intelligence can use words spoken and written; musical intelligence can use written and sound symbols, etc.

Using these criteria, Gardner proposes the following list of intelligences, alerting the reader that while this list is broad and encompasses much of human intelligence, it is not an exhaustive list.

Linguistic Intelligence
Musical Intelligence
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Spatial Intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Personal Intelligence

Most of these items are fairly clear - we know that linguistic intelligence involves language, words, speech, and the understanding and use of such tools. Similarly, logical-mathematical intelligence is fairly well understood. It is on the basis of these two intelligences that most of Western academics is founded and evaluated - even the primary measuring instruments such as SAT tests recognise the difference between mathematical and linguistic abilities by separating out those tests and scoring them differently.

Musical intelligence is likewise understood. It is an intelligence people can tap into for enjoyment even if the sophisticated understanding of theory is not present, unlike the main part of logical-mathematical intelligence.

Spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences are sensed by athletes, dancers, and others who use their bodies in ways that exceed normal abilities. These are intelligences that are closely related. A quarterback or a ballet dancer needs to have both an awareness of body motions and abilities as well as sense of the space involved for the action. However, these are separate intelligences. An architect may have a great sense for spatial requirements and have no real bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

Perhaps the most difficult to express is the idea of personal intelligence. This is likewise the one intelligence that Gardner concedes he might have the most difficulty with in defining, symbolising, and expressing. It involves an ability to interact with others and with oneself. Perhaps Einstein is a classic example of a savant in logical-mathematical intelligence while being impaired in the personal intelligence arena - not having a good sense of himself and his relationships with others, with time, with place, etc. Religious leaders and diplomatic persons tend to be high in this intelligence.

In the third part of Gardner's book, he explores the education and application of intelligences. Gardner explores the educational systems of many cultures, past and present, to illustrate ways in which different kinds of intelligence are cultivated. A hunter needs good bodily-kinesthetic abilities as well as good spatial abilities honed to a high degree. City-dwellers tend to need linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities to a higher degree.

'As compared with hundred or even thirty years ago, talk about the development of intelligence, the realisation of human potential, and the role of education is very much in the international air.'

The ways in which all kinds of intelligence, including the very-difficult-to-teach personal intelligence, can be cultivated. First is the requirement of recognition of different kinds of intelligence and the ways in which students respond. In my theology class last semester, we had students who were divinity students, counseling students, and church music students. To have required the same pattern of assignment for each of these groups would have been unfair. So, one person turned in an audio tape as accompaniment for her theology paper. Another student framed her theological discussion in terms of a counseling session. These permitted the students to tap into their stronger intelligences while still learning what was valuable from the basic course materials.

This is a valuable book for teachers, pastors, counselors, parents, supervisors, and anyone who wants a clearer definition of what is working inside oneself as intelligence.

4-0 out of 5 stars not a liberal and the book was still good
intelligent people would agree with me when i say that a unique approach to an otherwise tired theory is more than welcome. on the other hand, some readers from glenville, NY can suck it. If you are a close-minded mechanical conservative tight-@ss who cant appreciate a new idea, nor accept that creative minds might be just as much a contributing member of society as your self-righteous politican or tight-wad teacher, then this book might not be for you. stick to something more classic, like The Bible, or The Prince, by Machiavelli.

1-0 out of 5 stars Nice theory, application is the problem
On first glance, much of the rhetoric on "multiple intelligences" does not sound particularly unreasonable, which is part of why it is so dangerously insidious. But a deeper look reveals three profound problems:

1. The core problem with this fad is the utter lack of any suggestion as to how such supposed "learning styles" might be OBJECTIVELY and QUANTITATIVELY identified or assessed, or how any of this would translate into effective teaching practices. Ultimately, there is a complete absence of even the slimmest quantitative evidence that any of this has any utility.
2. In an attempt to provide different kinds of exercises and projects for the different "learning styles" of the students in the classroom, spectacular blocks of precious time are wasted that could be better spent.
3. If the education industry really took to heart the notion that different kids require different approaches, then the obvious conclusion is that it's nuts to require all of the students in a geographic district to attend the same school. A student should be sent to the school that best addresses his or her needs, not merely according to which side of the street he or she lives on.

There are many good sources for true "critical thinking" and commentary about Gardner's theories. Try looking for "Illinois Loop" and going to the page on multiple intelligences.

2-0 out of 5 stars Can you Spot a a Liberal?
This is based on opinion:
I had to unfortunately suffer through Mr. Gardner's diatribe as an education student. I have tried to educate my colleagues as to what he is about. Most specifically, we saw him lecture, where he called for a "revolution" in education. When he asked the audience what most people think of when they think of a revolutionist, he showed a picture of Lenin. Thereafter, the lecture blasted Ron Reagan and conservatives, and pointed to the fun aspects of there being a bad person in Iraq or Cuba.
This book is trying to tell you, the educator, that no one is smart and no one is "dumb". Dumb just means your true talent hasn't been discovered. While I agree many students have talents that are not uncovered, and public schools fail with the standardized test, don't tell me the basketball player is as intelligent as the person who invented the MRI; or the poet as smart as the scientist who finds a cure for cancer.
No, we are all not equally intelligent. Some of us are smart, some of us are not. But we are not equal, and we never will be.
This theory is a method to make us all equal--exactly where socialists and liberals lie. Sure the bell of equality rings harmoniously for many; while the aristocrats sit perched at the Harvard tower, controlling their brainwashed flock. ... Read more

80. Developing Critical Thinkers : Challenging Adults to Explore Alternative Ways of Thinking and Acting (Jossey-Bass Higher Education Series)
by Stephen D.Brookfield
list price: $35.00
our price: $35.00
(price subject to change: see help)
Asin: 1555423566
Catlog: Book (1991-07-15)
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Sales Rank: 223161
Average Customer Review: 3.5 out of 5 stars
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Book Description

1989 Winner of the Cyril O. Houle World Award for Literature in Adult Education

This award-winning book offers a practical, straightforward guide to helping adults develop their critical thinking skills in four key arenas of adult life: in their personal relationships, in their workplaces, in their political involvements, and in their responses to the media. ... Read more

Reviews (4)

4-0 out of 5 stars Necessary Andragogy Supplement
Brookfield makes clear how critical thinking is a necessary part of adult education. It is necessary for the adult educator to develop the skills necessary to be cognizant of the critical thinking process, through practice and developing the ability to articulate the concept and process to students while assisting them into putting the critical thinking process into practice.

Brookfield outlines in this book how critical thinking is necessary in decipering media coverage, developing political positions, negotiating family vacations, and even in building and maintaining intimate relationships. Further, Brookfield advises that the critical thinking process affords students the ability to recognize perspectives other than their own held beliefs. Finally, through the epilogue, the educator is given some clear direction in implemeting and incorporating critical thinking dialouge and questioning in the classroom.

Excellent supplement to any andragogy focused course or to improve the quality and efficacy of adult education.

1-0 out of 5 stars Poor treatment of important topic
Stephen Brookfield writes 254 pages on one of the most important topic in our world and basically says nothing useful. His style is very "touchy / feely, and he writes very superfluous statements that provide little, if any enlightenment to the reader. On his primary topic on how to teach critical thinking I found no practical application. This book reminds me of a college student's attempt to write intelligently on an important topic, but it was way over his head.

4-0 out of 5 stars A valuable read except for two things
As an organizational psychologist, I found this book very well-written and informative. For those who are not educators or counselors, Dr Brookfield's thorough discussion in Part One of just what constitutes critical thinking, how to recognize it and learning to think critically as adults is well worth the read. Parts Two and Three deal in-depth with developing critical thinking in adults, particularly college students. There are only two things I feel distract from the book. First, almost all of Dr Brookfield's examples employ very politically liberal themes. I'm afraid Dr Brookfield, as a member of the Academy, is so steeped in this persuasion that he didn't consider that more moderate examples might appeal to a wider audience. The second weakness, ironically, involves an attempt to appeal to a wider audience. Someone (probably his editor or a Jossey-Bass marketeer) prevailed on the author to periodically insert references to the workplace, political institutions and the media. At the end of the book, Part Three contains whole chapters dedicated to these areas, and the back cover suggests that the book should be placed in either the Higher Education or Management sections of the bookstore. Unfortunately, I found his references to business and the workplace to be rather superficial and, well, forced. At the end of the day, however, I found the book interesting and well-written and a valuable find particularly for educators.

5-0 out of 5 stars, Dallas, TX, April 13, 2000
If you are looking for a practical and, yet, profound work that allows you to develop critical thinking skills Stephen D. Brookfield has written what you are seeking. Brookfield defines critical thinking and articulates a method to help you recognize it in action. He proposes that to be critically analytical concerning the assumptions underlying our actions and those of others is organizationally and culturally beneficial as well as personally liberating. I have utilized the critical debate method that he recommends as a means to help others examine their assumptions as part of a diversity exercise within an organizational setting. The lessons learned were tremendous. The participants had to select a position (for or against) regarding a topic on which they held strong opinions. An example topic would be "physician assisted suicide". I then asked for ten volunteers who said they were for physician assisted suicide to form a debate team. Next, I asked for volunteers who said they were against physician assisted suicide to form a debate team. Then, I asked the debate teams to prepare an argument that was counter to their position. The debate team that was composed of people for the position had to develop an argument against it. The debate team that was composed of people against the position had to develop an argument for it. They had to present their final arguments in a debate format to approximately sixty observers. The observers were paired during the debate teams' preparation time and they had to discuss with their partner how they would argue a counter position to their original belief. The participants were able to experience in real time that they could "try on" a perspective which they had not held and be able to effectively support it. In doing so, they had to allow themselves the opportunity to take in new data which required them to place their original position on hold. In many cases, they learned that they were not as informed as they should have been about their original position. The dynamics within the group and effect of the presentations on the observers were also interesting. The diversity exercise was a means for the group to begin to understand the need for us to challenge the underlying assumptions that we have about people. Brookfield provided an excellent and fun method for this exploration. You must read the book to get further information about methods Brookfield proposes to help develop alternative ways of thinking. It was said by Albert Einstein that the significant problems that we face can not be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. I am convinced that the root cause of many of the issues we face organizationally and personally can be traced to unchallenged and, perhaps, faulty assumptions. This is a classic work that should be required reading at appropriate levels within our school system. I also highly recommend that serious Organizational Development consultants and trainers who are interested in transforming people and organizations read this book. BRAVO Stephen D. Brookfield! ... Read more

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